Preparing Electronic Artwork

The Academy prefers to use author-supplied electronic art for all figures and complex tables to help ensure accuracy; it is acceptable, however, to submit a manuscript electronically and supply figures and tables as high-quality, camera-ready hard copies.

Do not include figure legends in a graphics file. Figure legends should be placed after the Reference section as text in the main manuscript file.

Do not embed graphics within the text files, even if your software enables page makeup including the graphics. Do not compress files. Graphics must be supplied separately in EPS or TIFF format (preferred), with one illustration per electronic file. Do not send JPG files as they cannot be used in the printing process. Quality printouts suitable for reproduction of the artwork must also accompany the printed manuscript. The printouts should be an exact match of the illustrations in the files. Figure and Table files should be named with their respective numbers and graphic type, such as Fig1.tiff, Fig2a.tiff, and Table1.eps.

Creating Electronic Illustrations
When creating illustrations, use font sizes and line weights that will reproduce clearly and accurately when figures are sized to the appropriate page size. Preferably use the Adobe font Helvetica for labeling. If you use blends (degradés, vignettes, gradients, fountains), use no more than 10 in one file. When using rules, never use a rule weight less than .25 point, preferably .5 point. For black and white line art, use solids, cross-hatching, or dot patterns rather than screen tints when possible. Do not use "electronic whiteout" - delete unnecessary elements from the illustration; never use a white box to cover them up. Also, in tables, never use a white box to break rules, as the box will be ignored in the final printing.

Always consider the final reduced size of an illustration. The final size of figures must fit within a 4˝-by-7-inch text page. The final size of type in an illustration should range from 8 point to 14 point, with the preferrable size at 10 point. When saving the final illustration, save it at the final size and orientation to be used in publication.

If it is necessary to export graphics from vector-based drawing programs (e.g., Adobe Illustrator) to raster-based programs (e.g., Adobe Photoshop), a resolution of at least 600 dpi is required for quality reproduction. When scanning art for publication, a resolution of 600 to 1000 dpi is required for line art and 270 to 300 dpi for halftones (photographs).

Do not use color for shading in otherwise black and white lineart. For economic reasons, the vast majority of illustrations are printed in black and white or grayscale. Color photos and illustrations must be approved by the Editorial Offices for use in the Annals. The presswork for color illustrations is prohibitive and the cost (about $3500) must be borne by the author.

In the event color is used, artwork must be as CMYK color. (In printing, the four inks used to produce color are cyan, magenta, yellow, and black [CMYK], known as four-color separations.) RGB (red, blue, and green used create color images on your monitor) must be converted to CMYK and all necessary color adjustments must be made prior to transmitting the files. Authors must supply the Academy with a color-correct CMYK printout of all digital color art. If we cannot make a sufficient match using the digital file, we will scan the hard copy provided.

When submitting artwork on disk, label the disk with the platform (Macintosh, PC, etc.), software (including the version number), and the file format. Clearly indicate the file names and the contents of each file (figure number, etc.). Please be sure to include any necessary support files and fonts with any artwork.

Transmitting Electronic Materials
Submissions on 3.5-inch disks (the preferred medium for manuscript files; avoid using "old" low density disks, i.e., 720s), 100 MB Zip disks (preferred for illustrations), and CD-ROM are accepted. Disks should be formatted DOS/Windows- or Macintosh-compatible. We cannot access disks formatted for all versions of Unix and strongly discourage submissions on Unix disks. On the disk label note the operating system, software, file format, and version numbers used to create the disk, e.g., Win95 / WinWord 7.0. If you submit your electronic materials on one of these media, we recommend using the special packaging materials available and shipping them via a reputable express courier service.

You may also send the text of your manuscript via e-mail as an attachment. Illustrations may also be sent using e-mail, but as separate atttachments in TIFF or EPS files, with one illustration per attachment.

Transferring files directly to the Academy's server (FTP) is fast, reliable, and convenient. For instructions on transmitting your electronic files via FTP, contact Joyce Hitchcock.